Monday, 26 December 2016


     When the guest s are invited for lunch or dinner, the dining   table décor can be enhanced by adding a napkin folding in the table arrangement. Many do Napkin folding as an art or hobby at home, were as in high class restaurants, it’s a part of their table set up. The form of Napkin folding dates back to Victorian times, 66cm square classic metre is one fold requiring a large napkin to obtain elaborate old designs. Table napkins may be folded in a number of ways. This can be best done with well starched linen.

Here is the way to make CORNET type of folding:

Cornet is a popular type of folding, its shape is useful in giving height and importance to the table, especially when table‘s floral décor is in a low bowl.

a.       Open a square napkin on the table.
b.      Fold it in half a way, then, refold it, in half- length wise, so that the edges are at the top. Fold the   sides to touch in the middle
c.       Fold under the right and left hand corners as indicated by the dots
d.      From the top right hand side point A, and roll towards the centre.
e.      Repeat this roll on the opposite side from point B.
f.       Press the rolled part into place so that the napkin will stand up.

Here is the way to prepare BISHOP’S METER   type of folding:

Bishop’s meter is a folding mostly used in functions they often had a dinner roll placed inside them.   a.   First crease the square napkin into 3 parts as indicated by dotted lines in {fig. a}
      b.  Fold the lowest third over the middle one.   
      c. Turn the top one inwards and insert and insert it between the first two. The resulting fold of 3               thickness is a rectangular shape as shown in {fig. b}
     d.  Crease this strip equally into 4 parts.
     e.  Open them out so that they are laid flat so as to be lifted and folded over      
f.    f.  Fig {c} shows these end section lifted up, fig {d} indicates how they are folded over so that   the        original ends of the strip have been brought together and now touching at the middle.
    g. Next hold the strip firmly to present it gaping and so that the corners are creased, as shown by             dotted lines fig {e]
    h. Now fold them over as illustrated in fig{f}
i.   i. Cross the napkin diagonally along the middle as indicated  in fig{g}
j.  j. Now fold the napkin along the crease so that the two triangles emerge outwards and are not turned    inwards. The napkin should now appear as shown in fig{h}    
   k.To complete the design, group the farthest point on the left and bring it up with a circular action. So  that it ends can be tucked into the plates of the triangles seen towards right, this provides the left    hand edge of the metre.
l.   l. Next take the farthest point on the right as shown in fig{h} and in the same way fold it into the plates   of the left hand edge .This completes the picture, so that it should appear as  in fig    { I }.

Here is the way to prepare THE ROSE type of folding:

This  is mainly used for presenting round dishes with a square napkin.
     a.       Open the napkin flat on the table.
     b.      Fold the corners to the centre fig {a}
     c.       Repeat this folding fig {b}
     d.      Repeat it 3rd time fig {c}
     e.      Turn the napkin over so that it faces down ward and again, fold all four corners to
              the centre fig{d}
     f.        Using a small cup or simply the fingers, hold the centre firmly, fig {e} now pull up the 12 corners         from underneath so that a petal appears.

Here is the way to prepare THE FAN type of folding:

      a.     Take a well starched napkin and fold it in 3 length wise.
      b.      Pleat half of it evenly to the centre so that the pleats face each other.
      c.       Firmly flatten them down.

      d.      Holding it firmly, insert it into a wine glass fanning it out at the top.         

Monday, 19 December 2016


Originally the term “Sandwich” was applied to thin slices of meat placed between slices of bread and butter, a dish which was first introduced around the eighteenth century. Bread a day old, is generally used for sandwiches but fresh bread is more tasty although it is more difficult to cut, for rolled sandwiches however, the bread has to be very fresh. A sandwich may be one of many things, it can be a delicious bit of non- sense that makes you ask for more, it can be prim and proper or staunch and hearty or it can be an empty promise. This reminds me: have sufficient filling for each sandwich. The label should not be the only means of identification
The type of sandwich you make will vary with the purpose for which it is used To avoid monotony there should be a stress on variety Ham burgers, cheese burgers, kabab sandwiches, hot dogs and varieties of toasted sandwiches are a few of the types that can be made when sandwiches form a complete meal. A glass of cold milk and some fruit served with these sandwiches make them as good nutritionally as the best meals. Whether you should take the crust off or leave them on will depend again on the purpose. Generally the heartier the meal for which the sandwich is used, the more the reason for keeping the crust on. Relishes and pickles such as cocktail onions, pickled gherkins, cucumber etc add to palate appeal. These can be chopped up with the filling or used as garnishes. Sandwiches of this type are also used for picnic baskets. Sandwiches are really a picnic boon, for fishing trips, for stag parties and for luncheon clubs etc. Sandwiches are also popular with teenagers, youngsters, for tea parties, for barbecues and for afternoon teas at home and to serve with drinks. The patterns vary with the purpose.
When cutting bread pile up the slices in the order in which they are to be cut. This is to get even and neat looking sandwiches. If the cutting isn’t perfect, as very often hand cutting is cutting easier. Remember to butter both the slices of bread that form a sandwich. Fillings are usually spread only on one side. Here again a variety can be provided by changing the butter, soften the butter before spreading by beating, never by melting.
ARRANGEMENTS: variety can be provided by altering the way in which bread is cut and also by allotting the arrangement. The type of filling and the method of serving the sandwiches will determine the way to cut it. The following diagram shows how to cut and serve the sandwiches. 

In open spaces, place garnishes, relishes, a salad or a serving of soup or a pretty doily of lace or paper mace be put on the plate. This adds to eye appeal. Cane baskets or trays could also be used as containers for display. When different types of sandwiches are served at a reception or party they should have sign flags or labels to denote the variety.

TO KEEP SANDWICHES: After cutting, wrap in an aluminium foil, or in bags made of transparent plastic material. Keep sandwiches in a cool place till required, but do not refrigerate. A napkin dipped in cold water and wrapped around each batch prevents dryness.
THE SERVICE OF SANDWICHES: sandwiches should be served stacked on a plate. Various garnishes can be used such as parsley and watercress.  When serving sandwiches, they should be picked up with sandwiches tongs and place them on a plate.
Ingredients: Grated cheese, capsicum, bread &butter

Method: Spread some slices of bread with butter, sprinkle grated cheese and a little finely chopped capsicum over half of them, cover with remaining  bread, press together, trim and cut into shape. 

Sunday, 11 December 2016


These terms were heard in the Economics classroom in those days. But now a days to have a maid or not to have a maid is a daily discussion among many working women as well as home makers. Domestic help / servant maid / cook/ full time help/ Aayaa, the names vary with the type of work or assistance they provide in the required place. With coming up of few incidences about the theft, misbehaviour, fraud and cheating, to hire a maid remains a question of safety factor. Maid from the known sources increases the network of gossips and the chain of connectivity among the fellow maids becomes more.
From waking up in the morning, the daily chores are hectic& that too the works to be done before 8:00 am is highly more. Obvious is the requirement of a maid- putting Rangoli, cleaning vessels, mopping, laundry. At many places, cutting vegetables, packing lunch boxes, taking care of the young & the old. When the dependence upon the maid grows, the roles change, maids availability & likes take over the needs& necessities of the dependent. The maid will fix the menu-the vegetable which is easy to cut &cook. Many ready to eat items in the lunch boxes, her choice of channels on the T.V. when  she is there to take care of the young &the old. Slowly the maid starts to rule the household . The dependants rush to office & home. They are called as“ Haves”
Have- Nots  are the ones who strictly say no to maids. They too rush between home &office. Fruits, packed foods- cover the lunch boxes. Many a days food is brought from outside. Bakers help them a lot with breads, cakes, cookies & wide variety of deep fried foods. Washing machines wash &dry then ironing, the clothes never see the light of the day. After school children reach the near by day care centre, even during vacations too. They pick up children after office by 8.00pm. If the day care centre is not functioning, then the children are locked inside the house. Smart phones, laptops are given to play games& to convince children to accommodate the parents & not to disturb them during their work.
Why no maids?- These Have- Nots, say largely about theft. Security reasons too add to the difficulty of being monitored by the maids about their shifts & changes in work timings often. The same applies to not having a Driver for the car. If the school van comes in time, before the parents leave, it’s O.K. or else the children stand on the road waiting for the school van or they simply wander in the parking lots of the flats or on the road. They watch & notice other parents who wait along with their wards to way off them to school. The condition of these so rich poor kids seems so pathetic. If they are back home a bit early, they wait on the foot steps.
In the homes of the both the Haves & Have-Nots, the suffers  are children/ elders. Home makers play a better role in this regard where as the office- goers along with their careers { male/ female} can at least spare sometime to think about their children especially notice what’s going on in schools & day care centre? Ask your child Is she/he is happy with the way he /she is being treated? Ask her/him if he/she wants to say, show or share some thing with you?

The security agencies can help in hiring maids or helpers with registered users. This can create a more safe environment  for the children & elders to walk around in their homes.

Monday, 5 December 2016


Earth is such a mine, that beholds in itself many precious rocks & stones which bear a great value in terms of money.  They are natural treasures, which are made into fine gem s, fit to be adorned in the jewels. Gems are considered to be a rich possession. According to the Indian context, there are nine precious gems (NAVARATNAS) Nava means 9 in number, Ratnas means gems in Hindi &Sanskrit language .
Diamonds are the costliest of all Gems. Diamonds are universally accepted as great because of their grandeur and grand histories. Diamond is a precious stone consisting of a clear, colourless form of pure carbon, the hardest naturally occurring substance.
THE CULLINAN  I  -530.20 carats, is the largest cut diamond in the world. Pear shaped, it is set in the royal sceptre. “ THE GREAT STAR OF AFRICA” is the title to the Diamond as it is the largest cut stone originating from the Great cullinan diamond found in South Africa. The nation of South Africa   presented this diamond to the king EDWARD VII of England as a birthday gift.
THE REGENT – 410 carats, discovered  in  India in 1698. It was with the then Governor of Madras. The regent was purchased for the French crown. It was first adorned by Louis XV.
THE ORLOFF – 190 carats, is a rare rose cut gem . Evidences   state that this diamond may have originated in India. Presently it is the crown jewels of Russia.
KOH-I-NOOR- 105.60 carats, a oval  brilliant cut, is set in the Maltese cross, a platinum crown designed for Queen Elizabeth II for her 1937 coronation.
THE KASI KCI- SPOONMAKER-86 carats, is a pear shaped diamond. The pride of the  Topkapi palace Museum, Istanbul.
THE IDOL’S EYE- 70.20 carats, is described as “ a splendid large diamond known as the  idol’s eye set round with 18 smaller brilliants and a frame work of small brilliants.”
THE TAYLOR- BURTON- 69.42 carats, is founded in Southafrica, is a pear shaped diamond. This was purchased by actors of Hollywood- Richard Burton &Elizabeth Taylor.
THE SANCY- 55.23 carats, it is a pale yellow & shield shaped stone of Indian origin. This is the first large diamonds tp be cut with symmetrical facets. This was purchased by Nicholas Harlai, the seigneur de sancy who was an avid collector of gems and jewellery.
THE BLUE HOPE- 45.52 carats, the most famous coloured diamond in the world. This too holds the chances of its origin in India. The world’s most legendary gem is at Smithsonian.
THE DRESDEN GREEN- 41 carats, its origin may be traced back to 18 th century, founded in Golconda, India. The diamond got its name from the capital city of Saxony (Dresden) in Germany. It is a natural colour fancy green diamond, pear shaped & chemically pure.
THE HORTENSIA -20 carats, is a pale orangey pink cut on five sides. It takes its name from Queen of Holland. Louis XIV was responsible for the addition of this diamond to the crown jewels of France.
PUMPKIN DIAMOND- 5.54 carats, cushion shaped diamond. This was founded in Central African Republic.

These are the few details about the various diamonds around the world. Gemmologists grade the diamonds basing on their weight & clarity.

Monday, 28 November 2016


                                . ihNduStan.
ihNdudez ke invasI s_aI jn @k hE, r<g êp ve; _aa;a cahe< Anek hE,  #n p<iKtyae< se tae sare _aartvasI vaik) AaEr shmt hE,  ihNduStan ke s_aI raJy %nke rajxanI, _aa;a, pKvan,n&Ty, pyRqn Swl Aaid ivze;taAae< kae janne me< inMn iliot p'iKtya< mddgar saibt hae<ge.

 1  AaNØàdez  - AmravtI / (telugu ) (gae<gUra p½if)  (kUcuPpufI )   
                  (itépit , ivzaop”[m! , hEdrabad, ivjyvafa, AnNtpur)
 2  Aé[aclàdez - #qangr  (nE;I)  (pasa)  (gla)e    
                             (jIrae, tejpUr, tva<g, bae<ifLla, psIgaq, przuram ku{f)
 3  Assam  -  idspUr  (ASsamI ) (ibhu)  (qe<ga) 
  (gaEhaQI, hjae, isbsagr, mjaElI, h)la<g, balukpa~g)
4  bIhar  -  paqna  (bIharI AaEr mEiwlI ) (ili” )  (jtjitn )
(gya, nalNda, AaEr<gabad, vEzalI, muja)rpUr, mxubnI)
 5  DTtIsgf  -  raypur  (ihNdI-DÄIsgFI ) ()ra ) (pNwI) 
(raypur, iblaspur, jgdlpur,  ibla#,  icÇkaeq,  kaebaR )    
 6  gujrat  -  gaNxIngr  (gujratI)  (faekla ) (dai{fya) 
   (Ahmdabad,  rajkaeq,  sUrt,   vfaedra,   _auj, jamngr)
 7  ihmaclàdez  -  izmla  (ihNdI-pharI)  (cNnamf+a) ( dulzael)         
                      (kulum[alI,  c<ba,  xmRzala,  saeln , iblaspUr, ^na)
 8  jMmU-kzmIr  -  ïIngr  (kzmIrI) ( raeg[ jae; )  (duMhl-rae) )
                  (AnNtnag,  rjaErI,   phlgam,  baramuLla, leh, saenamagR)
 9  jaoR{f  -  ra<cI  (ihNdI-_aaejpurI ) ( égra)  (HUmr)
  ( jam;eqpur,  ra<cI, "qizla , idyaegr,  xnbad)       
10  k[aRqka  -  be<glUé  (kNnfa)  (y]gana) ( ibisbelabad) 
(ïIr<gp”[m, hMpI,  belUé- hlbIfu, mEsUé, %fuiPp, mTtUé)
11  kerla  -  itévnNtpurm!  (mlyalm! )  (kwklI-maeihnIya”m! ) (puq!qu )
        (kaeLlm! , Aalpu;a, kaeicn, guévayUézbirmla,  itéCcUé)
12  mXyàdez  -  baepal   (ihNdI)  (paeha-jlebI)  (kma)
(Gvailyr, %JjEn, jblpUr, #NdUr, bStr , reva)
13  mharaò+e  -  muMb$  (mraQI)    (vfa-pav)  (lav[I)
                 (izirfI, mhableñr, kaeLhapUr,  pU[e, naisk, AaEr<gabad)
14  mi[pUr  -  #Mpal  (mi[pUrI)  (raslIla)  (@raeMba) 
   (l'!tabal, kEna, iv:[upur, %³ul, mae$ra<g,  k<gcp)
15  me"alya  -  i;‘a<g   (kazI) (jdaeh)  (va<gla)
               (%imym lek, icrpu<jI,  ma)la<g,  ri[kaer,  tura,  niqRya<g)
16  imsaerm!  -  #zval ( imzaeqa<g)  (b#) (cerav - Day lem)
              ( sa#ha, bu<g-pEoE, )a<gpu#, D<)E,  tmidlvaNqava<g)
17  nagalNd  -  kaeihma   ( nagamIs) (Aouin DqnI)  (sema)
    ( idMmapur,  vaeoa,  )eo,  HuNhebaeqae, maekaekc<g, oaenaema)
18  AaeiFza  -  _auvneñr  (AaeiFya)  (s<tula)  (AaeifsI)
( kaenakR, pUrI, k”ak, sMblpur, myUr_a<j,  )UlbnI)
19  p<jab-hirya[a  -  ci{fgr  (p<jabI)  (mKoI id raeqI-sarsaen da sag
bajra ikCDfI)  (ba<gra) 
                       (AimtRsr, ptankaeq, piqyala, biq{fa, lUidyana, jlNxr)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
20  rajStan  -  jypur  (rajStanI)  (dal-baqI-cumaR ) ("Umr)
( maE<q-Abu, AjmIr,  %dypur,  icÄaeFgr,  jaedpur,  ibkanIr)
21  isiKkm  -  ge<gqak  (nepalI)  (maemaes)  ( Damas)
(Tsaemgae lek, ntu‘a pas,  bKkIm, dsae<grI, pemaya<gSte, oÃnj<ga)
22  timlnafu  -  ceNnE  (timl)  (#fil-vfa-saMbar) ( _artnaq(m)
             (t<javUr, mam‘purm, nIligir,  ka<cIpurm,  icd<brm,  mdurE)
23 tel<gana  -  hEdrabad  (telugu ) (hEdrabaid dm-ibiryain)  (kUicPpuif)
           (_aÔaclm! , var<gl, krI<ngr, injamabad, gaeLkae{fa, husEnsagr)
24 iÇpura  -  AgtRla (be<galI)  ( bemaR )  (rI<ga )
(kmlasagr, %dypur, maqabrI, iplak, H<p$, %nkaeiq)
25  %Äràdez -  lon% (ihNdI-%dUR )  (nvabI kKkaerI )  (ktk)
( var[asI, Aagra,  Ailgr,  brelI,  mIrq,  HansI)
26  %Äro{f  -  fehrafUn  (ihNdI)  (bl imQa$)  (ktk)
                    (hirÖar, nNdadevI, mSsaErI, nEintal, ALmaEra, ù;Ikez)
27  piím be<gal  -  kaelkaeÄa  (be<galI)  (raezgu‘a )  ( gaEifya n&Ty)

    (faijRil<g, hUglI, kil<pa<g, ib:[upur, kmrpur, isilguir)